Monday, August 24, 2020

Battle of Marathon in the Persian Wars

Skirmish of Marathon in the Persian Wars The Battle of Marathon was battled during the Persian Wars (498 BCâ€448 BC) among Greece and the Persian Empire. Date Utilizing a proleptic Julian schedule, it is accepted that the Battle of Marathon was battled on either August or September 12, 490 BC. Armed forces Commanders Greeks MilitiadesCallimachusArimnestusapprox. 8,000-10,000 men Persians DatisArtaphernes20,000-60,000 men Foundation In the wake of the Ionian Revolt (499 BC-494 BC), the sovereign of the Persian Empire, Darius I, dispatched a military to Greece to rebuff those city-expresses that had supported the dissidents. Driven by Mardonius, this power prevailing with regards to oppressing Thrace and Macedonia in 492 BC. Moving south towards Greece, Mardonius armada was destroyed off Cape Athos during an enormous tempest. Losing 300 boats and 20,000 men in the fiasco, Mardonius chose to pull back towards Asia. Disappointed with Mardonius disappointment, Darius started arranging a second undertaking for 490 BC in the wake of learning of political unsteadiness in Athens. Imagined as a simply oceanic venture, Darius doled out order of the undertaking to the Median chief of naval operations Datis and the child of the satrap of Sardis, Artaphernes. Cruising with requests to assault Eretria and Athens, the armada prevailing with regards to sacking and consuming their first target. Moving south, the Persians arrived close to Marathon, roughly 25 miles north of Athens. Reacting to the looming emergency, Athens raised around 9,000 hoplites and dispatched them to Marathon where they hindered the ways out from the close by plain and kept the foe from moving inland. They were joined by 1,000 Plataeans and help was mentioned from Sparta. Digging in on the edge of the Plain of Marathon, the Greeks confronted a Persian power numbering between 20-60,000. Wrapping the Enemy For five days the militaries got down to business with little development. For the Greeks, this dormancy was to a great extent because of a dread of being assaulted by the Persian mounted force as they crossed the plain. At last, the Greek authority, Miltiades, chose for assault in the wake of getting ideal signs. A few sources additionally show that Militiades had gained from Persian miscreants that the rangers was from the field. Shaping his men, Militiades strengthened his wings by debilitating his middle. This saw the middle diminished to positions four profound while the wings included men eight profound. This may have been because of the Persians inclination to put substandard soldiers on their flanks. Moving a lively pace, perhaps a run, the Greeks progressed over the plain towards the Persian camp. Shocked by the Greeks daringness, the Persians hurried to frame their lines and deliver harm on the adversary with their bowmen and slingers. As the armed forces conflicted, the more slender Greek place was immediately pushed back. The student of history Herodotus reports that their retreat was restrained and sorted out. Seeking after the Greek place, the Persians immediately wound up flanked on the two sides by Militiades reinforced wings which had steered their contrary numbers. Having gotten the foe in a twofold envelopment, the Greeks started to dispense overwhelming losses on the softly heavily clad Persians. As frenzy spread in the Persian positions, their lines started to crush and they fled spirit to their boats. Seeking after the adversary, the Greeks were eased back by their substantial defensive layer, yet at the same time figured out how to catch seven Persian boats. Outcome Losses for the Battle of Marathon are commonly recorded as 203 Greek dead and 6,400 for the Persians. Likewise with most fights from this period, these numbers are suspect. Vanquished, the Persians withdrew from the region and cruised south to assault Athens directly.â Anticipating this, Militiades immediately restored the main part of the military to the city. Seeing that the chance to strike the already softly shielded city had passed, the Persians pulled back to Asia. The Battle of Marathon was the principal significant triumph for the Greeks over the Persians and gave them certainty that they could be crushed. After ten years the Persians returned and won a triumph at Thermopylae before being crushed by the Greeks at Salamis. The Battle of Marathon additionally offered ascend to the legend that the Athenian messenger Pheidippides ran from the combat zone to Athens to report the Greek triumph before dropping dead. This amazing run is the reason for the advanced olympic style sports occasion. Herodotus repudiates this legend and states that Pheidippides ran from Athens to Sparta to look for help before the fight. Chosen Sources Skirmish of MarathonPersian Wars: Battle of Marathon

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Gas Laws Lab Report Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Gas Laws - Lab Report Example Trough was loaded up with satisfactory water and its temperature raised by three inches and intended to be uniform in all parts before embeddings a 250 ml having a solitary gap plug. The embedded flagon was placed in the water shower in such a case the degree of the water came to its neck and clipped at that position. After around 10 minutes its temperature was taken and recorded as (Ti). Room’s surrounding pressure was additionally taken utilizing indicator, which likewise the equivalent with that in flagon and recorded as (Pi). To decide Tf, the flagon was reversed in a water shower for around 10 minutes whereby Vi then Vf were determined and classified as required. At that point Pf was gotten utilizing this connection, Pf = Pressure in the lab (Pi) †Water fume pressure Tf. At that point the rest of the condition intended to get last Vf was acquired utilizing the relationship Vf = Vi {Pi/Pf}{Tf/Ti }. A 125 ml flagon was secured with an aluminum foil at the top before a pin opening made to permit simple departure of unstable fume put in the jar. The carafe while embedded in the water shower it was warmed to the temperature of T. At that point the flagon was taken out to cool before its substance estimated and recorded as m. The volume V of the cup was likewise estimated by filling it with

Thursday, July 23, 2020

Social Entrepreneurship at SIPA COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY - SIPA Admissions Blog

Social Entrepreneurship at SIPA COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY - SIPA Admissions Blog The following post was written by Kevin Hong.   Kevin is a second-year student concentrating in Economic and Political Development with a specialization in Management. Kevin graduated from Cornell University in 2005 and focused on Computational and Systems Biology.   Prior to joining SIPA Kevin was Study Coordinator at the Francis I. Proctor Foundation based at the University of California in San Francisco. _________________________ Whether it is corporate social responsibility, sustainability, or social entrepreneurship, there has been increasing interest in the intersection of the private and public sectors expressed by SIPA students. As I served as the Social Entrepreneurship Chair for SIPA Net Impact, I met more and more students at SIPA who are interested in how to encourage more business to promote social causes or how to use entrepreneurial approaches in social sectors. Net Impact is a national organization with chapters around the world to bring together students and professionals who are interested in these issues (   The chapter at SIPA has been particularly active in the past year putting together a variety of events to raises awareness about social entrepreneurship (Face Book page here). Here are some of events we hosted: AfroReggae- Social Entrepreneurship and Arts Education in Brazils Favelas KOPERNIK ~ Entrepreneuring Breakthrough Technologies Food in the Sky: Vertical Farming for Sustainable Food Supply with Dr. Dickson Despommier Conversation with Paul Polak, Author of Out of Poverty and Founder of International Development Enterprises (IDE) The Power of Social Entrepreneurship The Mae Fah Luang Foundation Social Entrepreneurship: Insights from Practitioners In partnership with Wagner School of Public Services at NYU, SIPA Net Impact also organized the Social Enterprise Boot Camp which offered skill-building workshops, an elevator pitch competition, and speed networking for aspiring social entrepreneurs ( This event was a huge success with over dozen speakers and over 100 participants and SIPA Net Impact is working to offer the Boot Camp again this year with more workshops. Social Enterprise Boot Camp Now with two full courses dedicated on social entrepreneurship taught by professors Sarah Holloway and Sara Minard and exciting extracurricular activities on the topic, SIPA provides unique opportunities for students who are interested in public policy and development to explore social entrepreneurship as an innovative tool to promote social causes in which they are interested.   So join us and find out how you can make the world a better place with social entrepreneurship at SIPA!

Friday, May 22, 2020

American Cheetah Facts

The American Cheetah (Miracinonyx trumani and Miracinonyx inexpectatus) actually comprised two very different species. These species were predators that lived in the Pleistocene era in North America, about 2.6 million to 12,000 years ago. Interestingly, the American cheetah was more closely related to modern pumas and cougars than it was to cheetahs. If, in fact, the American Cheetah turns out not to have been a true cheetah. Scientists attribute this fact to convergent evolution, the tendency for animals in the same ecosystems to evolve the same general features. Fast Facts: The American Cheetah Scientific Names: Miracinonyx trumani and Miracinonyx inexpectatusCommon Name: American cheetahBasic Animal Group: MammalSize: 5–6 feet longWeight: 150–200 pounds, depending on speciesLifespan: 8–12 years, but possibly up to 14 yearsDiet: CarnivoreHabitat: Plains of North AmericaStatus:  Extinct Description The American cheetah is an extinct genus of two feline species that were endemic to North America during the  Pleistocene period: Miracinonyx inexpectatus  and  Miracinonyx intrumani.  Researchers have pieced together fragments of an American cheetah skeleton to derive a picture of what these predators may have looked like. The American cheetah had long legs as well as a lithe body, blunt snout, and foreshortened face with enlarged nasal cavities (to allow for more efficient respiration). American cheetahs were estimated to have weighed about 150 to 200 pounds and measured about 5 to 6 feet in body length. Miracinonyx inexpectatus  had shorter legs that were thought to be better equipped for climbing than the modern cheetah. Habitat and Range The two species of the American cheetah seem to have shared some important general characteristics, including a preference for open grasslands and plains of North America, particularly in what is now the western section of North America. Diet and Behavior Like modern cheetahs, the lithe, long-legged American cheetah hunted by pursuing speedy mammalian megafauna, including deer and prehistoric horses, across the rolling North American plains. However, theres no way to know if this ancient mammal could achieve modern cheetah-like bursts of speed in the 50-mph range, or if its speed limit was set by evolution to a much lower level. Miracinonyx intrumani more closely resembled a modern cheetah, and may, indeed, have been capable of hitting top speeds of over 50 mph in pursuit of prey. Miracinonyx inexpectatus was built more like a cougar than a cheetah (though it was somewhat slimmer overall), and its fully retractable claws point to a possible arboreal lifestyle—that is, instead of chasing prey over the prairies like Miracinonyx intrumani, it may have leaped on them from the low branches of trees, or perhaps scrambled up trees to escape the notice of larger predators. Reproduction and Offspring The reproduction behavior of the American Cheetah is unknown, but sources such as the San Diego Zoo Global Library speculate that their habits were similar to modern cheetahs. Cheetahs become sexually mature when they are between 20 and 23 months. They breed throughout the year. Females have an estrous cycle—the amount of time they are sexually active—of 12 days, but they are actually only in heat for one to three days. Females demonstrate that they are receptive to males by urinating on bushes, trees and rocks. A male, picking up on the scent, begins yelping, and the female responds with yelps of her own as the male approaches. Female cheetahs will mate with more than one male over the course of their lifetime. The females gestation period is about one to three months. They give birth to one to eight offspring, called cubs, which are between 5 and 13 points. Offspring stay with their mother for 13 to 20 months. Cheetahs reach maturity and become sexually active by 2.5 to 3 years of age. Reasons for Extinction Scientists dont know exactly why the American cheetah became extinct, but they think that climate change, a shortage of food, and competition from humans, such as through hunting and competition for food, may have played a role. The American cheetah went extinct at the end of the last ice age—the same time that American lions, mammoths, and horses died off. Sources â€Å"American Cheetah Facts, Habitat, Pictures and Range.†Ã‚  Extinct Animals, 1 July 2015.â€Å"Cheetah Facts.†Ã‚  Cheetah Conservation Fund.Cheetahs Once Roamed North America.†Ã‚  Roaring Earth, 10 Oct. 2018.â€Å"Long before Canada Was Canada.†Ã‚  Cheetah Conservation Fund Canada, 2 Nov. 2018.Pepper, Darren. â€Å"Miracinonyx (American Cheetah†­).†Ã‚  Miracinonyx.ï » ¿Ã¢â‚¬Å"Reproduction.†Ã‚  SeaWorld Parks Entertainment.San Diego Zoo Global Library. â€Å"LibGuides: Extinct American Cheetahs (Miracinonyx Spp.) Fact Sheet: Summary.†Ã‚  Summary - Extinct American Cheetahs (Miracinonyx Spp.) Fact Sheet - LibGuides at International Environment Library Consortium.

Thursday, May 7, 2020

Theories of the Atonement - 1274 Words

Erickson (1998) says there are a few theories on the atonement depending on how your read certain scripture, the theories are as follows: The Socinian Theory (1998:801); This theory speaks of Christ on the Cross as a perfect example of what kind of dedication followers of God must do, there is no connection to a sacrificial death whatsoever. The moral influence theory (1998:802); This theory believes the cross was an example of God’s love and not much more. The Governmental theory (1998:806); This theory sees the death of Christ on the Cross as atonement and also as a picture to the believer as to how serious sin is, and it must not be taken lightly. The Ransom Theory (1998:810); In this theory it is proposed, and quite popularly so, that†¦show more content†¦Ã¢â‚¬Å"Accordingly reconciliation proceeds by doing away with sin, and the method of doing this was by the atoning death of Christ† (Morris 1965:250). What is being said, and the conclusion we have already come to, yet are just confirming, is that sin was our problem, God through Christ on the cross was our solution, this is our atonement, Christ’s death on the Cross, and this is our Gospel. â€Å"Moved by the perfection of His Holy love, God in Christ substituted himself for us sinners. That is the heart of the cross of Christ†¦ What God in Christ has done through the cross is to rescue us, disclose Himself and overcome evil† (Stott 2006:195). â€Å"So in Christ, believing in Christ, incorporated in Him, we can face the law without any fear, without any tremor or quiver† (Lloyd-Jones 2003:336). The good Doctor here is speaking about the law given to the Israelites for them to be set apart from other nations, and for them to be set apart for God, the law was impossible to keep, yet there was a way around it with the animal sacrifices, this Jesus fulfilled completely in His atoning death on the cross, the law no longer has any power over those who believe in Jesus. â€Å"If he was going to accomplish the work that the Father sent Him to do, and if people were going to be redeemed for God, then it was necessary for Him to die on the cross†¦there was no other way for God to save us than for Christ to die in our place† (GrudemShow MoreRelatedThe Theological Theory Of Atonement1634 Words   |  7 Pagespersonal style to form their ideas of what the atonement means. In the second century, Irenaeus and Athanasius formed their beliefs into a model of atonement. They are usually regarded as being the first to outline the theory of atonement called the recapitulation theory. Their work set the tone for all the other theories that followed. This model dominated atonement theology of the early church throughout the first millennium. The recapitulation theory is based off Platonst views that the church fathersRead MoreJesus Christ and the Atonement Theories Essay1658 Words   |  7 Pageswould forgive us for our sins. Atonement is the action of putting things right between us and God. This story illustrates a very simplified version of one Atonement theory. Jesus, the Pan, accomplished Atonement by sacrificing himself for mercy and forgiveness. He died for us so God would forgive our sins. The Atonement theories themselves are different explanations to help interpret what God actually did to save us. In each of the four Atonement theories Jesus is the bridge that connectsRead MoreRelationship Between Incarnation And Atonement Essay1671 Words   |  7 PagesThe Relationship Between Incarnation and Atonement The incarnation and atonement of Jesus Christ are the enduring elements of the Christian theology. Many theologians have spent their time discussing and developing these Christian doctrines on how they came about, and how relevant they might be. According to Anselm, incarnation is a central doctrine of Christianity, followed by atonement. In order to ponder on the relationship between atonement and incarnation focusing on Anselm’s idea of satisfactionRead MoreThe Atonement And Its Effect On The Cross Of Calvary1288 Words   |  6 PagesThe Atonement The word â€Å"Atonement† is frequently used in the Old Testament. Nevertheless, in regards to the New Testament, the King James Version of the Bible mentions â€Å"Atonement,† only once, which is found in (Rom. 5:11.) Furthermore, other versions, such as, the NRSVA, NIV, ASV and others uses the word â€Å"Reconciliation† as an alternative. Perhaps, when one seeks the etymology and the meaning of the word, this phrase simply can be seen as at-one-ment, which can be translated as the state of onenessRead MoreThe Theological Plain Of Christianity1017 Words   |  5 Pagesthe theological plain of Christianity regarding the atoning work of Christ, one is made aware of the scope of theories ascribed to it. Many of these theories can be attributed to heresy and rightly denied with a simple cursory look within the pages of Scripture. However, where such ideas can be dismissed, there remain two viewpoints readily opposed to one another in the extent of the atonement whi ch dominates the landscape beyond any national border. Because of these two opposing ideologies, one mustRead MoreJesus Christ Made A Voluntary Sacrifice Essay1544 Words   |  7 PagesAtonement is an ecclesiastical theory which explains human being’s reconnection with God. This allows the sinful nature of man to be forgiven, and reconciled with grace of God. Forgiveness of sin through the sacrifice given through the death of Jesus and later his resurrection, is the understanding of atonement. Jesus Christ made a voluntary sacrifice to later allow the possibility of reconciliation between man and God. â€Å"God so loved the world, and gave his only begotten son† (Bible – King JamesRead MoreAtonement And Its Effect On The Cross Of Calvary884 Words   |  4 PagesThe word â€Å"Atonement† is frequently used in the Old Testament. Nevertheless, in regards to the New Testament, the King James Version of the Bible mentions â€Å"Atonement,† only once, which is found in (Rom. 5:11.) Furthermore, other versions, such as, the NRSVA, NIV, ASV and others uses the word â€Å"Reconciliation† as an alternative. Perhaps, when one seeks the etymology and the meaning of the word, this phrase simply can be seen as at-one-ment, which can be translated as the state of oneness of two whoRead MoreEssay Topic: Discuss Point of View as a Technique and Theme in ‘Atonement’.1716 Words   |  7 Pagesparticular themes in such books as the Atonement by Ian McEwan, Jane Austen and many other authors. Using these styles has been spoken of as heightened literary skills which delivers to the reader what the author desires to reveal of their characters. It is an advanced and old style that can be used to bring forth the many perceptions created by the writer. This essay will discuss how point of view is used as a technique and thereupon the theme of atonement within free indirect style, variable internalRead More Christianity and Lib eralism by Gresham Machen-Machen Essay1738 Words   |  7 Pagescontinuum, from respect for Word of God as a literature to doubts regarding the canonicity of particular writings to a rejection of the Bible. Second, Machen makes connections the rejection of the Bible to the rejection of â€Å"‘mechanical’ theories of inspiration, the theory of ‘dictation,’ the superstitious use of the Bible as a talisman,’ or the like,† (PAGE 63) without discussing regarding things like infallibility and inerrancy that liberals believe. However, Machen clearly and strongly indicatesRead MoreTransformation in Flying with the Eagle, Racing the Great Bear928 Words   |  4 Pagestry to make a sense of the world,† (Alan Watts). Myths are shown as symbolic tales of the distant past that are passed down from generation to generation. One particular way to look at mythology and the study of myths is through Joseph Campbell’s theory of a monomyth, or the basic pattern throughout all myths around the world. This pattern Joseph Campbell describes, he conveys to happen in all classic myths, which he in turn calls, the hero’s journey. The hero’s journey is a series of stages or a

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Education Philosophy Outline Free Essays

Philosophy of Education Outline I. Introduction a. Ever since I was in elementary school, I wanted to become a teacher. We will write a custom essay sample on Education Philosophy Outline or any similar topic only for you Order Now I have had some outstanding teachers in my lifetime and I would love to carry on the legacy. I want to inspire the future generation to make the world a better place. b. Every teacher has their own personal views on teaching, learning, goals, and professional development. c. Teaching is not just a job. Teachers mold their students’ futures every day. I believe it is highly important that each teacher strives to make a difference in each student’s life. II. Teaching d. Tools are a necessary part of learning. I plan to use a variety of tools, including SmartBoard technology, books, videos, props, etc. I believe students learn the best by participating in hands-on activities as opposed to only lectures. e. I believe that a teacher should play many roles, not just one. This includes being the motivator, facilitator, challenger, and supporter. f. The School of Thought I agree with is Democratic. This stresses the process of learning, not just the product. It also promotes outside-the-box thinking. g. My preferred educational philosophy is progressivism. I favor an open classroom where students often work together and learn to deal with social problems as well as material from the curriculum. III. Learning h. Learning is something we do every minute of every day. When someone learns, they are broadening their horizons and gaining new experiences. i. Learning is an adventure and a voyage. j. In my classroom, I plan to incorporate a variety of strategies. This includes discussion, but will also include hands-on activities, group work, and presentations. IV. Teaching Goals k. To incorporate out-of-the-box thinking and new ideas. l. To make sure every student understands the subject matter. m. To be open to change and spontaneity. V. Personal or Professional Development n. To make each student truly feel that they are a vital part of the classroom, and that they have the power to make a difference. o. To be just as passionate about my work and the subjects studied as I expect my students to be. VI. Conclusion p. When I become a teacher, I hope to change the lives of each and every student. q. Making a difference is inspiring our future generation to change the world. How to cite Education Philosophy Outline, Essay examples

Monday, April 27, 2020

Why Presidentialism Is Undesirable In A Newly Founded Democracy Brazi

Why Presidentialism is Undesirable in a Newly Founded Democracy: Brazil's Struggle to Liberalize Brazil's transformation from an authoritarian regime to a presidential democracy was a slow and faltered attempt. From the early suggestions of democratic development, there were both administrations that contributed to democratic growth, as well as administrations that opposed this liberalization. This led to an instability in the Brazilian form of democratic government, their economy, and their political parties. The people's reactions to these instabilities confirm the fact that the Brazilian democratic regime was not working effectively. Even though Brazil was governed under a democratic system because the president was chosen by the people, the president rarely acted in a democratic manner. The first signs of a modern democratic government in Brazil appeared in 1945 when the military deposed President Get?lio Vargas. Vargas had created a "semi-corporatist authoritarian regime (the Estado N?vo) based largely on the military."1 Once Vargas had been removed from power, Brazil instituted a competitive multi-party system. Multi-party systems are not a requirement for democracy, "but certainly the history of democratization has been associated with the development of parties and their legitimation."2 This step towards a true democratic government was negated in 1964 when the military forced a reversion to an authoritarian form of rule. The president remained the top government official, but he was merely a puppet to the military. The Army officer corps choose a general who the Congress would elect for president for a set term.3 Castelo Branco managed to hold the hardliners? demands at bay with the enactment of concessions. To make his successor's transition to office easier, Castelo Branco and his advisers reformed the constitution so that the next president could assume power in a "normal" constitutional regime.5 General Artur da Costa e Silva took over as President in 1967. He experienced an average economic growth of eleven percent per year, which lasted from 1968 until 1974. However, the political atmosphere was not fairing as well as the economy. There were many student demonstrations and two major industrial strikes. To rectify this situation, the government reacted with highly repressive police action. Costa e Silva then implemented the Fifth Institutional Amendment. This amendment "authorized the suspension of normal civil rights, such as habeas corpus, justifying the measure by the need to protect national security."6 What made this amendment even more undemocratic is that it had no expiration date; the effect of this would have long term consequences. Costa e Silva was able to take this action because "in presidential systems, the [elected president] winner takes all: He or she can form a government without including any losers in the coalition."7 Because he did not have any of his opposition in the government to contend with, it made it possible for Costa e Silva to pass this amendment. Shortly after instituting the Fifth Institutional Amendment, Costa e Silva died from a stroke. After much debate among the Army officer corps, it is decided that General Em?lio Garrastaz? M?dici would be the next president. He ruled the most authoritarian regime since 1964. "Although elections were held and Congress continued to function (with a suspension in 1969-71, broken only to ratify M?dici1s succession in early 1970), Brazil was in the grip of the security forces, which were locked in battle with several small guerrilla movements."8 Still, even after the guerrilla forces were suppressed, arbitrary procedures and dictatorial practices continued. This is not a unique occurrence in Latin American states. Linz reveals that " many [Latin American] countries the periods of democratic rather than authoritarian presidentialism have been short. Most presidents have been de facto governors deriving power from a coup rather than an election, or a dubious election."9 Brazilian presidents were chosen in much the same way: a dubious election where the Army officer corps appoint a general who will become the next president. From there, the legislature, who are comprised of military backers, elect the general. However, M?dici1s administration was considered to be somewhat legitimate by the middle and upper class because of Brazil's continued economic growth and reign of "law and order."10 After M?dici1s term was up, General Ernest Geisel was elected president. One of his Geisel's main concerns was the unequal income distribution; but this problem was compounded by the rapidly growing external debt. Geisel decided to reform the welfare programs that the former governments had left in disrepair. To minimize the negative effects of the new welfare programs, continued high economic growth was imperative. However, continued growth was not quite as easy